Field Scale Spatial Variability of Soil Physical Properties in the Harran Plain

Abstract views: 38 / PDF downloads: 29




Soil physical properties, geostatistics, clay, aggregate stability, bulk density


This study aimed to model the spatial distribution of surface and subsurface soil physical properties at a small field scale (12 hectares) in the Harran Plain, to estimate and map values at unsampled points. Geostatistical methods and mapping techniques were used for modeling, estimation, and mapping. Soil samples were collected at 54 separate points in the study area, representing disturbed and undisturbed samples from depths of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm. Soil samples were analyzed for texture, aggregate stability, bulk density, available water content (AWC), water filled pore space (WFPS), and total porosity. The clay content of the study area soils ranged from 52 % to 69%, with the highest clay content observed in the western part and sporadically along the northern boundary. Aggregate stability values ranged from 11 % to 50 % in the top 20 cm depth, bulk density values ranged from 1.08 g cm-3 to 1.48 g cm-3, and AWC values ranged from 3.8 % to 13.6 %. While WFPS values in the southwest part of the study area were below 60%, they were above 60% in almost all other areas. Both surface and subsurface soils exhibited relatively low variability (CV<15 %) in clay and silt content, bulk density, field capacity moisture content, and WFPS, indicating relative homogeneity across the study area for these properties. Total porosity and microporosity CV values were also low at both 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depths, indicating homogeneity in the water and nutrient retention and storage capacity of the study area soils at both depths. The information obtained will contribute to the optimization of field management and soil conservation practices, enhancing the sustainability of agricultural production.


Abakay, O., Günal, H., 2023. Ergani ovasında bazı toprak özelliklerinin mekânsal dağılımlarının belirlenmesinde lokal polinomal interpolasyon ve deneysel bayesyen kriging yöntemlerinin karşılaştırılması. MAS Journal of Applied Sciences, 8(4): 654-668.

AbdelRahman, M.A., Zakarya, Y.M., Metwaly, M.M., Koubouris, G., 2020. Deciphering soil spatial variability through geostatistics and interpolation techniques. Sustainability, 13(1): 194.

AbdelRahman, M.A., Zakarya, Y.M., Metwaly, M.M., Koubouris, G., 2020. Deciphering soil spatial variability through geostatistics and interpolation techniques. Sustainability, 13(1): 194.

Adhikari, K., Guadagnini, A., Toth, G., Hermann, T., 2009. Geostatistical analysis of surface soil texture from Zala County in western Hungary. Proceedings of International Symposium on Environment, energy, and water in Nepal: Recent researches and direction for future; Mar 31–Apr 1; Kathmandu; p. 219–224.

Al-Shammary, A.A.G., Kouzani, A.Z., Kaynak, A., Khoo, S.Y., Norton, M., Gates, W., 2018. Soil bulk density estimation methods: A review. Pedosphere, 28(4): 581-596.

Angers, D.A., Bullock, M.S., Mehuys, G. R., 2008. Aggregate stability to water. Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis, 2: 811-819.

Arthur, E., Tuller, M., Norgaard, T., Moldrup, P., de Jonge, L.W., 2019. Improved estimation of clay content from water content for soils rich in smectite and kaolinite. Geoderma, 350: 40-45.

Bilgili, A.V., Çulu, MA., Küçük, Ç., Almaca, A., Öztürkmen, AR. 2015.Harran Ovası farklı toprak serilerinde toprak kalite indeksi (skor fonksiyonu) kullanarak toprakların kalitelerinin değerlendirilmesi ve takip edilme potansiyelinin araştırılması. TUBITAK Projesi; TOVAG 111O706. s.69.

Birol, M., Günal, H., 2022. Field scale variability in soil properties and silage corn yield. Soil Studies, 11(1): 27-34.

Blake, G.R., Hardge, K.H. 1986. “Bulk Density” In: Klute, A. (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical Methods, 2nd Edition, Agronomy Monograph No.9, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, pp. 363-375.

Blaschek, M., Roudier, P., Poggio, M., Hedley, C.B., 2019. Prediction of soil available water-holding capacity from visible near-infrared reflectance spectra. Scientific Reports, 9(1): 12833.

Bone, J., Head, M., Barraclough, D., Archer, M., Scheib, C., Flight, D., Voulvoulis, N., 2010. Soil quality assessment under emerging regulatory requirements. Environment International, 36: 609–622.

Borůvka, L., Donátová, H., Němeček, K., 2002. Spatial distribution and correlation of soil properties in a field: a case study. Plant, Soil and Environment, 48(10): 425-432.

Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agronomy Journal, 54(5): 464-465.

Budak, M., Günal, H, Sırrı, M., Acir, N. 2023. Characterization of Surface and Groundwater Resources in Yüksekova Basin. ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 7(4): 784–797.

Cambardella, C.A., Moorman, T.B., Novak, J.M., Parkin, T.B., Karlen, D.L., Turco, R.F., Konopka, A.E., 1994. Field‐scale variability of soil properties in central Iowa soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 58(5): 1501-1511.

Cassel, D.K., Nielsen, D.R., 1986. Field capacity and available water capacity. Methods of soil analysis: Part 1 Physical and mineralogical methods, 5: 901-926.

Celik, I., Günal, H., Acir, N., Barut, Z. B., Budak, M., 2021. Soil quality assessment to compare tillage systems in Cukurova Plain, Turkey. Soil and Tillage Research, 208: 104892.

Danielson, R.E., Sutherland, P.L., 1986. Porosity. Methods of soil analysis: part 1 physical and mineralogical methods, 5: 443-461.

Datta, S., Taghaveian, S., Stivers, J. 2018. Understanding Soil Water Content and Thresholds for Irrigation Management. Oklahoma State Univ. Fact Sheet. BAE-1537. nt-and-thresholds-for-irrigation-manag ement.html (Erişim tarihi: 01.01.2024).

Fattani, S., Forka, C. A., Garcia, M., Huynh, T., Merricks, T., Robinson, M., Sanders, C., 2021. Soil moisture and porosity affects the abundance and distribution of Ageratum houstonianum. Pursue: Undergraduate Research Journal, 4(1): 1.

Fichtner, T., Goersmeyer, N., Stefan, C., 2019. Influence of soil pore system properties on the degradation rates of organic substances during soil aquifer treatment (SAT). Applied Sciences, 9(3): 496.

Franzluebbers, A.J., 1999a. Microbial activity in response to water-filled pore space of variably eroded southern Piedmont soils. Applied Soil Ecology, 11: 91–101.

Goovaerts, P., 1999. Geostatistics in soil science: state-of-the-art and perspectives. Geoderma, 89(1-2): 1-45.

Goovaerts, P., 1998. Geostatistical tools for characterizing the spatial variability microbiological and physico-chemical soil properties. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 27: 315-334.

Günal, H., Budak, M. 2022b. Toprak Kalitesi ve Ekosistem Hizmetleri Arasındaki İlişkinin İrdelenmesi. In Toprak Kalitesi ve Değerlendirilmesi. p. 45-66. Ankara, Iksad Publishing House.

Gündoğan, R., 2023. Şanlıurfa topraklarının özellikleri ve kullanımı. Editör: Altop, E.K. Tarımsal teknoloji ve ekosistemlerde ileri uygulamalar: Verimlilik, Çevresel Etkiler ve Yenilikçi Yaklaşımlar. sayfa: 61-102. Iksad Publications. Ankara.

Halder, M., Liu, S., Zhang, Z. B., Guo, Z. C., Peng, X.H., 2022. Effects of organic matter characteristics on soil aggregate turnover using rare earth oxides as tracers in a red clay soil. Geoderma, 421: 115908.

Hanson, B., Orloff, S., Peters, D., 2000. Monitoring soil moisture helps refine irrigation management. California Agriculture, 54(3): 38-42.

İinci, Y., Gündoğan, R., Bilgili, A.V., Ramazanoğlu, E. 2026. Morphological, physical and chemical characteristics, classification and evaluation of soils formed on common parent materials in şanlıurfa for forensic applications. ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 7(4): 891–903.

Iqbal, J., Thomasson, J.A., Jenkins, J.N., Owens, P.R., Whisler, F.D., 2005. Spatial variability analysis of soil physical properties of alluvial soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 69(4): 1338-1350.

Kara, Z., Aydemir, S., Saltalı, K., 2022. Rehabilitation of light textured soils with olive pomace application. MAS Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(2): 316-325.

Kemper, W.D., Rosenau, R.C. 1986. “Aggregate stability and size distribution”, In: Klute A, (Ed.) Methods of soil analysis. Part 1. Physical and mineralogical methods. Madison, WI. p 425-42.

Keshavarzi, A., Tuffour, H.O., Brevik, E. C., Ertunç, G., 2021. Spatial variability of soil mineral fractions and bulk density in Northern Ireland: Assessing the influence of topography using different interpolation methods and fractal analysis. Catena, 207: 105646.

Khan, F.U., Khan, A.A., Li, K., Xu, X., Adnan, M., Fahad, S., Zaman, F., 2022. Influences of long-term crop cultivation and fertilizer management on soil aggregates stability and fertility in the Loess Plateau, Northern China. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 22(2): 1446-1457.

Klute, A. 1986. “Water Retention”, Laboratory Methods. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part1. 2nd Ed. Agronomy 9. Am. Soc. Agron., 635-660, Madison.

Lark, R.M., Rawlins, B.G., Robinson, D. A., Lebron, I., Tye, A.M., 2014. Implications of short‐range spatial variation of soil bulk density for adequate field‐sampling protocols: methodology and results from two contrasting soils. European Journal of Soil Science, 65(6): 803-814.

Linn, D.M., Doran, J.W. 1984. Effect of water-filled pore space on carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide production in tilled and non-tilled soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 48(6): 1267-1272.

McColl, K.A., Alemohammad, S.H., Akbar, R., Konings, A.G., Yueh, S., Entekhabi, D., 2017. The global distribution and dynamics of surface soil moisture. Nature Geoscience, 10(2): 100-104.

Mekala, C., Nambi, I.M. 2017. Understanding the hydrologic control of N cycle: Effect of water filled pore space on heterotrophic nitrification, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium mechanisms in unsaturated soils. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 202: 11-22.

MGM, 2024. İllerimize ait genel istatistisek verileri. Şanlıurfa ili. LIURFA (Erişim tarihi: 10.01.2024).

Mulla, D.J., McBratney, A.B., 2001. Soil spatial variability (pp. 343-77). Soil physics companion. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Oliver, M.A., Webster, R., 2014. A tutorial guide to geostatistics: Computing and modelling variograms and kriging. Catena, 113: 56-69.

Rivera, J.I., Bonilla, C.A., 2020. Predicting soil aggregate stability using readily available soil properties and machine learning techniques. Catena, 187: 104408.

Robinson, D.A., Thomas, A., Reinsch, S., Lebron, I., Feeney, C.J., Maskell, L.C., Cosby, B.J., 2022. Analytical modelling of soil porosity and bulk density across the soil organic matter and land-use continuum. Scientific Reports, 12(1): 7085.

Sırrı, M., Fidan, M, Budak, M. 2023. Soil factors affecting the distribution of weed flora in the wheat fields of Yüksekova basin. ISPEC Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 7(4): 855–869.

Six, J., Bossuyt, H., Degryze, S., Denef, K., 2004. A history of research on the link between (micro) aggregates, soil biota, and soil organic matter dynamics. Soil and Tillage Research, 79(1): 7-31.

Stehfest, E., Heistermann, M., Priess, J.A., Ojima, D.S., Alcamo, J., 2007. Simulation of global crop production with the ecosystem model DayCent. Ecological Modelling, 209(2-4): 203-219.

Tanner, S., Katra, I., Argaman, E., Ben-Hur, M., 2021. Mechanisms and processes affecting aggregate stability and saturated hydraulic conductivity of top and sublayers in semi-arid soils. Geoderma, 404: 115304.

Trangmar, B.B., Yost, R.S., Uehara, G., 1986. Application of geostatistics to spatial studies of soil properties. Advances in Agronomy, 38: 45-94.

Tripathi, R., Nayak, A.K., Shahid, M., Raja, R., Panda, B.B., Mohanty, S., Sahoo, R. N., 2015. Characterizing spatial variability of soil properties in salt affected coastal India using geostatistics and kriging. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 8: 10693-10703.

Usowicz, B., Lipiec, J., 2017. Spatial variability of soil properties and cereal yield in a cultivated field on sandy soil. Soil and Tillage Research, 174: 241-250.

Wang, Y., Zhang, J.H., Zhang, Z. H., 2015. Influences of intensive tillage on water-stable aggregate distribution on a steep hillslope. Soil and Tillage Research, 151: 82-92.

Webster, R., 2001. Statistics to support soil research and their presentation. European Journal of Soil Science, 52(2): 331-340.

Wilding, L.P., 1985. Spatial variability: its documentation, accommodation and implication to soil surveys.

Yang, Y., Zhang, Y., Yu, X., Jia, G., 2023. Soil microorganism regulated aggregate stability and rill erosion resistance under different land uses. Catena, 228: 107176.

Zaffar, M., Sheng-Gao, L.U., 2015. Pore size distribution of clayey soils and its correlation with soil organic matter. Pedosphere, 25(2): 240-249.

Zhao, D., Wang, J., Zhao, X., Triantafilis, J., 2022. Clay content mapping and uncertainty estimation using weighted model averaging. Catena, 209: 105791.



How to Cite

DURMAZ , M., GÜNAL, H., BUDAK , M., & ÇELİK , İsmail. (2024). Field Scale Spatial Variability of Soil Physical Properties in the Harran Plain. MAS Journal of Applied Sciences, 9(2), 241–264.