Relations Between Protein Intake and Immune System in Human and Farm Animals


Abstract views: 29 / PDF downloads: 18

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.11670292

Keywords:

Amino acid, Antibody, Immunity, Nutrition, Protein

Abstract

Protein is one of the foods that should be consumed daily nutritions for balanced and healthy nutrition. Daily protein requirements of humans and animals are met from vegetable and animal sources. There are 300 amino acids known in nature but only 20 of them exist in the structure of proteins. Some of the amino acids deficiency is not a problem, it can be synthesized in limited quantities from others, and the need can be met easily. Especially in poultry, lysine and methionine levels needed for high yield or rapid development are obtained from commercial sources produced synthetically due to the insufficiency of commonly used feeds. Amino acids absorbed from the digestive system are carried to the organs, tissues, and cells, which are used through the bloodstream. Proteins are found in the structure of many components in the body such as; various organs, hair, bone, body fluids, enzymes, hormones, etc. In addition to providing nutrients, proteins are also involved in the structure of various molecules in the immune system.

References

Abumrad, N.N., Barbul, A., 2004. The use of arginine in clinical practice. In Metabolic & Therapeutic Aspects of Amino Acids in Clinical Nutrition 2nd ed. pp. 595 - 611 [LA Cynober, editor]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Ak, İ., Sözcü, A., 2016. Etlik piliçlerin beslenmesinde metiyoninin bağışıklık sistemi gelişimi ve performans açısından önemi. Tavukçuluk Araştırma Dergisi, 13(1): 5-8.

Bansal V., Ochoa JB., 2003. Arginine availability, arginase, and the ımmune response. current opinion in clinic. Nutrition and Metabolic Care 6(2): 223-228.

Basu, S., Dasgupta, P.S., 2000. Dopamine, a neurotransmitter, ınfluences the ımmune system. Journal of Neuroimmunol, 102(2): 113-124.

Buchanan, J.T., Simpson, A.J., Aziz, R.K., Liu, G.Y., Kristian, S.A., Kotb, M., Feramisco, J., Nizet, V., 2006. DNase expression allows the pathogen group a streptococcus to escape killing in neutrophil extracellular traps. Current Biology, 16: 396 - 400.

Calder PC., 1995. Fuel utilization by cells of the ımmune system. Procedings of The Nutrition Society, 54: 65 - 82.

Calder, P.C., Yaqoob, P., 2004. Amino acids and ımmune function. In Metabolic & Therapeutic Aspects of Amino Acids in Clinical Nutrition. 2nd ed. pp. 305–320 [LA Cynober, editor]. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Calder, P.C., 2006. Branched-chain amino acid and ımmunity. Journal of Nutrition, 136: 288-293.

Cengiz, Ö. 2005. Broyler rasyonlarına ilave edilen değişik düzeylerdeki arjininin performans, immun sistem ve bazı kan parametreleri üzerine etkileri. Doktora Tezi, Ankara Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Ensitüsü, Ankara.

Chen, C., Sander, J.E., Dale, N.M., 2003. The effect of dietary lysine deficiency on the ımmune response to newcastle disease vaccination in chickens. Avian Diseases, 47: 1346-1351.

Cynober, L.A., 2004. Ornithine α-ketoglutarate as a potent precursor of arginine and nitric oxide: a new job for an old friend. The Journal of Nutrition, 134(10): 2858-2862.

Dasgupta, M., Sharkey, J.R., Wu, G., 2005. Inadequate ıntakes of ındispensable amino acids among home bound older adults. Journal of Nutrition for the Elderly, 24: 85-99.

De Fabo, E.C., Webber, L.J., Ulman, E.A., Broemeling, L.D., 1997. Dietary l-histidine regulates murine skin levels of trans-urocanic acid, an ımmune-regulating photoreceptor, with an unanticipated modulation: potential relevance to skin cancer. The Journal of Nutrition, 127: 2158-2164.

Demirel, G., Pekel, A., 2006. Tavuklarda bağışıklığın artırılmasında besin maddelerinin rolü. İstanbul Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi, 32(2): 71-77.

Demirel, R., Şentürk Demirel, D., 2017. Organik tavukçulukta metiyonin esansiyel amino asidi ihtiyacının karşılanması. Iğdır Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 7(4): 281-288.

Esteban, S., Nicolaus, C., Garmundi, A., Rial, R.E., Rodriguez, A.B., Ortega, E., Ibars, C.B., 2004. Effect of orally administered l-tryptophan on serotonin, melatonin and the ınnate ımmune response in the rat. Moleculer and Cellular Biochemistry, 267: 39 - 46.

Fang, Y.Z., Yang, S., Wu, G., 2002. Free radicals, antioxidants, and nutrition. Nutrition 8: 872-879.

Gobert, A.P., McGee, D.J., Akhtar M., Mendz, G.L., Newton, J.C., Cheng, Y., Mobley, H.L.T., Wilson, K.T., 2001. Helicobacter pylori arginase ınhibits nitric oxide production by eukaryotic cells: a strategy for bacterial survival. Procedings of the National Academic Sciences 98: 13844-13849.

Gökçeyrek, D., Tüzün, C.G., 2007. Kanatlılarda bağışıklık sisteminin gelişiminde erken beslemenin önemi. IV. Ulusal Hayvan Besleme Kongresi, 24-28 Haziran, Bursa.

Grimble, R.F., 2006. The effects of sulfur amino acid ıntake on ımmune function in humans. The Journal of Nutrition, 136: 1660-1665.

Ha, E.M., Oh, C.T., Bae, Y.S., Lee, W.J., 2005. A direct role for dual oxidase in drosophila gut. Immunity Science, 310(5749): 847-850.

Jones, A.L., Hulett, M.D., Parish, C.R., 2005. Histidine-rich glycoproteins: a novel adaptor protein in plasma that modulates the ımmune, vascular and coagulation systems. Immunology and Cell Biology, 83: 106-118.

Kaplan, M., Yıldız, G., 2012;Kanatlılarda protein ve amino asitlerin immun sistem üzerine etkisi. Veteriner Tavukçuluk Derneği, Mektup Ankara 10(3): 3-12.

Kim, S.W., Mateo, R.D., Yin, Y.L., Wu, G., 2007. Functional amino acids and fatty acids for enhancing production of sow and piglets. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Sciences, 20: 295-306.

Kin, N.W., Sanders, V.M., 2006. It takes nerve to tell t and b cells what to do. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 79: 1093-1104.

Konashi, S., Takahashi, K., Akiba, Y., 2000. Effects of dietary essential amino acid deficiencies on ımmunological variables in broiler chickens. British Journal of Nutrition, 83: 449-456.

Kudsk, K.A., 2006. Immunonutrition in surgery and critical care. Annual Review of Nutrition, 26: 463 - 479.

Li, P., Yin, Y.L., Li, D., Kim, S.W., Wu, G., 2007. Amino acids and ımmune function. British Journal of Nutrition, 98(2): 237-252.

Mahajan, B.B., Kaur, S., 2015. Interferons. Indian Journal of Dermatol Venereology and Leprology, 81: 51-55.

Mashaly, M.M., Heetkamp, M.J., Parmentier, H.K., Schrama, J.W., 2000. Influence of genetic selection for antibody production against sheep blood cells on energy metabolism in laying hens. Poultry Science, 79: 514-524.

Muğlalı, H., Salman, M., 2012. Kanatlılarda beslenme sağlık ilişkisi. Hayvan Beslemede Güncel Yaklaşımlar. İnfovet Dergisi, 10-35.

Newsholme, P., Newsholme, E.A., 1989. Rates of utilization of glucose, glutamine and oleate and formation of end-products by mouse peritoneal macrophages. Biochemical Journal, 261: 211-218.

Newsholme, P., Curi, R., Curi, T.C.P., Murphy, C.J., Garcia, C., de Melo, M.P., 1999. Glutamine metabolism by lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils: ıts ımportance in health and disease. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 10: 316-324.

Newsholme, P., Procopio, J., Lima, M.M.R., Pithon-Curi, T.C., Curi, R., 2003. Glutamine and glutamate - their central role in cell metabolism and function. Cell Biochemistry and Function, 21: 1-9.

Newsholme, P., Brennnan, L., Rubi, B., Maechler, P., 2005. New ınsights in to amino acid metabolism, beta-cell function and diabetes. Clinical Science, 108: 185-194.

Sarıca, Ş., Karataş, Ü., Gözalan, R., 2009. Kanatlılarda bağışıklık sistemi ve bağışıklık sistemini etkileyen besinsel faktörler. Gazi Osman Paşa Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 26(2): 81-86.

Self, J.T., Spencer, T.E., Johnson, G.A., Hu, J., Bazer, F.W., Wu, G., 2004. Glutamine synthesis in the developing porcine placenta. Biology of Reproduction, 70: 1444-1451.

Shewchuk, L.D., Baracos, V.E., Field, C.J., 1997. Dietary L-Glutamine supplementation reduces growth of the morris hepatoma 7777 in exercise-trained and sedentary rats. Journal of Nutrition, 127(1): 158-166.

Shi, W., Meininger, C.J., Haynes, T.E., Hatakeyama, K., Wu, G., 2004. Regulation of tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis and bioavailability in endothelial cells. Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, 41: 415-433.

Songu, M., Katılmış, H., 2012. Enfeksiyondan korunma ve ımmün sistem. Journal of Medical Updates, 2(1): 31-42.

Sun, Y.P., Nonobe, E., Kobayashi, Y., Kuraishi, T., Aoki, F., Yamamoto, K., Sakai, S., 2002. Characterization and expression of L-Amino acid oxidase of mouse milk. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 277: 19080-19086.

Suzuki, F., Okayasu, H., Tashiro, M., Hashimoto, K., Yokote, Y., Akahane, K., Hongo, S., Sakagami, H., 2002. Effect of lignins and their precursors on nitric oxide, citrulline and asparagine production by mouse macrophage-like raw 264•7 cells. Anticancer Research, 22(5): 2719-2724.

Tsune, I., Ikejima, K., Hirose, M., Yoshikawa, M., Enomoto, N., Takei, Y., Sato, N., 2003. Dietary glycine prevents chemical ınduced experimental colitis in the rat. Gastroenterology, 125: 775-785.

Tüzel, T., 2012. Tavuk aşıları ve aşı programları. Veteriner Tavukçuluk Derneği, Mektup Ankara 10(3): 14 - 20.

Wang, X., Qiao, S.Y., Liu, M., Ma, Y.X., 2006. Effects of graded levels of true ıleal digestible threonine on performance, serum parameters and ımmune function of 10–25 kg pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 129: 264-278.

Wu, G., Morris, S.M., 1998. Arginine metabolism: nitric oxide and beyond. Biochemical Journal 336: 1-17.

Wu, G., Flynn, N.E., Flynn, S.P., Jolly, C.A., Davis, P.K., 1999. Dietary protein or arginine deficiency ımpairs constitutive and ınducible nitric oxide synthesis by young rats. The Journal of Nutrtion, 129: 1347-1354.

Wu, G., Meininger, C.J., 2002. Regulation of nitric oxide synthesis by dietary factors. Annual Review of Nutrition, 22: 61-86.

Wu, G., Bazer, F.W., Cudd, T.A., Meininger, C.J., Spencer, T.E., 2004. Maternal nutrition and fetal development. The Journal of Nutrition, 134: 2169-2172.

Zhong, Z., Wheeler, M.D., Li, X.L., Froh, M., Schemmer, P., Yin, M., Bunzendaul, H., Bradford, B., Lemasters, J.J., 2003. Glycine: a novel anti-ınflammatory, ımmunomodulatory and cytoprotective agent. Current Opinion in Clinic Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 6: 229-240.

Published

2024-06-19

How to Cite

ŞENTÜRK DEMİREL, D., & DEMİREL, R. (2024). Relations Between Protein Intake and Immune System in Human and Farm Animals. MAS Journal of Applied Sciences, 9(2), 320–330. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.11670292

Issue

Section

Articles