Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Case Study on Cement-bonded Particle Board Produced By Using Construction Demolition Wood Waste

Abstract views: 94 / PDF downloads: 35




Construction demolition waste, cement-bonded particle board, recycling, LCA


Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) is currently seen as one of the most important concerns that national authorities, particularly in Turkey, which is in the process of urban transformation and located in an earthquake zone. The search for alternative secondary raw materials for industries that use wood and its derivatives as raw materials is an important issue with the decrease on forest resources. CDW consists of bulky materials such as asphalt, bricks, wood and plastic. The main purpose of this study is use of waste wood those obtained by recycling the construction and demolition wood waste (CDWW) as cellulose source in production of cement-bonded particle board (CBPP). For this purpose, alkali treatment of CDWW was carried out by using alkaline solutions at four different concentrations of 2%, 3%, 5% and 8% NaOH by using the dipping method. A new cement-bonded particle board design was made using these alkali treated CDWW. The mechanical and physical performance tests of the produced particle boards were carried out and a recipe that yield the particle board having the best results was determined and a life cycle assessment study was conducted. As the recipes were produced by holding the cement/wood (c/w) ratio stable at 2:1, the best results were obtained from the boards produced by using CDWW that treated with 2% NaOH. The modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE) and density tests were applied to the produced boards in accordance with TS EN 310 and TS EN 323 standard, respectively. The vaules obtained as a results of MOR, MOE and density test are 10.37 N mm-2, 6437.28 N mm-2 and 1255.12 kg m-3, respectively. The experimental outcomes showed acceptable mechanical and physical performance of the developed CBPP in compliance with the required standards. The feasibility of the study was evaluated by conducting LCA studies for the most effective recipe. The global warming potential (GWP) value of the recipe with the best result as a 677.11 kg CO2 equivalent was found. The results of this study can be considered as an effective roadmap for sustainability in all over the world and in appling secondy raw metarial CDW management.


Alawar, A., Hamed A.M., Al-Kaabi, K., 2009. Characterization of treated date palm tree fiber as composite reinforcement. Composites Part B: Engineering, 40(7): 601-606.

Almeida, R.R., Del Menezzi, C.H.S., Teixeira, D.E., 2002. Utilization of the coconut shell of babaçu (Orbignya sp.) to produce cement-bonded particleboard. Bioresource Technology, 85(2): 159-163.

Altun, Y., Doğan, M., Bayramlı, E., 2013. Effect of alkaline treatment and pre-impregnation on mechanical and water absorbtion properties of pine wood flour containing poly (lactic acid) based green-composites. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 21: 850-856.

Bergander, A., Salmén, L., 2002. Cell wall properties and their effects on the mechanical properties of fibers. Journal of materials science, 37(1): 151-156.

Debnath, K., Gorrepotu, S.R., Posinasetti, N.R., 2022. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Flax-Based Green Composite Product Fabricated by Injection Moulding Process. In 2022 7th International Conference on Mechanical Engineering and Robotics Research (ICMERR), pp. 168-174. IEEE.

Eliceche, A.M., Corvalán, S.M., Martínez, P., 2007. Environmental life cycle impact as a tool for process optimisation of a utility plant. Computers & chemical engineering, 31(5-6): 648-656.

EPA, 2023. Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator, convert emissions or energy data into concrete terms you can understand — such as the annual CO2 emissions of cars, households, and power plants, US EPA. (, (Accessed: 11.04.2023)

Epd, H., 2015. Monitoring of Solid Waste in Hong Kong: Waste Statistics for 2013. Environmental Protection Department, Hong Kong.

Huang, B., Wang, X., Kua, H., Geng, Y., Bleischwitz, R., Ren, J., 2018. Construction and demolition waste management in China through the 3R principle. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 129: 36-44.

Humbert, S., Margni, M., Jolliet, O., 2012. IMPACT 2002+: user guide. Draft for version Q, 2.

ISO 14040, 2006. Environmental management—life cycle assessment—principles and framework. Geneva.

ISO 14044, 2006. Environmental management—life cycle assessment—requirements and guidelines. Geneva.

Jacquemin, L., Pontalier, P.Y., Sablayrolles, C., 2012. Life cycle assessment (LCA) applied to the process industry: a review. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 17: 1028-1041.

Joillet, O., Saadé, M., Crettaz, P., 2005. Analyse du cycle de vie, comprendre et réaliser un écobilan (Life cycle assessment: understand and perform an Eco-balance). Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, Lausanne.

Lehto, J., Louhelainen, J., Kłosińska, T., Drożdżek, M., Alén, R., 2018. Characterization of alkali-extracted wood by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, 8: 847-855.

Lu, W., Tam, V.W., 2013. Construction waste management policies and their effectiveness in Hong Kong: A longitudinal review. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 23: 214-223.

Nasser, R.A., Salem, M.Z., Al-Mefarrej, H.A., Aref, I.M., 2016. Use of tree pruning wastes for manufacturing of wood reinforced cement composites. Cement and Concrete Composites, 72: 246-256.

Öztürk, M., 2017. İnşaat ve Yıkıntı Atıkları. Ankara: Çevre ve Şehircilik Bakanlığı.

Rogoff, M.J., Williams, J.F., 2012. Approaches to implementing solid waste recycling facilities. William Andrew.

Sealey, B.J., Phillips, P.S., Hill, G.J., 2001. Waste management issues for the UK ready-mixed concrete industry. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 32(3-4): 321-331.

Setswalo, K., Oladijo, O.P., Namoshe, M., Akinlabi, E.T., Mokoba, M., 2019. Effect of particle size and alkali-laccase on the properties of pterocarpus angolensis (mukwa) wood flour. Procedia Manufacturing, 35: 465-470.

Telenko, C., Seepersad, C.C., Webber, M.E., 2008 January. A compilation of design for environment principles and guidelines. In International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, 43291: 289-301.

TS EN 310, 1999. Wood-Based panels- Determination of modulus of elasticity in bending and of bending strength. TSE, Ankara.

TS EN 322, 1999. Wood-Based panels- Determination of moisture content, TSE, Ankara.

TS EN 323, 1999. Wood-Based panels- Determination of density. TSE, Ankara.

TS EN 634-2, 2007. Cement-bonded particleboards - Specifications - Part 2: Requirements for OPC bonded particleboards for use in dry, humid and external conditions. TSE, Ankara.

Wang, L., Chen, S.S., Tsang, D.C., Poon, C.S., Shih, K., 2016. Recycling contaminated wood into eco-friendly particleboard using green cement and carbon dioxide curing. Journal of Cleaner Production, 137: 861-870

Wong, K.J., Yousif, B.F., Low, K.O., 2010. The effects of alkali treatment on the interfacial adhesion of bamboo fibres. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications, 224(3): 139-148.




How to Cite

AKIN, C. S., AR, İrfan, & HACIOĞLU, S. (2023). Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Case Study on Cement-bonded Particle Board Produced By Using Construction Demolition Wood Waste. MAS Journal of Applied Sciences, 8(Özel Sayı), 897–906.