The Effect of Foliar Application of Potassıum Fertilizer at Seedling Stage of Soybean Plants Under Salinity

Abstract views: 28 / PDF downloads: 24




Salinity, potassium humate, soybean, seedling stage


Soybean is a strategically important plant with both high protein content and high oil content. Various abiotic stress conditions can be effective on agricultural activities. Practical solutions can reduce the negative effects of stress conditions. For this reason, this study aimed to investigate how soybean is affected by salinity during the seedling period and to what extent it can tolerate the negative conditions caused by this stress with potassium humate fertilizer. Arısoy soybean variety was grown in greenhouse conditions in 1.3 kg pots (sand + perlite 1:1) in a random parcel experimental design under 0, 3, 6 dS m-1 salt conditions (by applying with irrigation water) after emergence. Potassium humate (0 and 40 cc da-1) was applied during the seedling period. As a result of the study, it was determined that increasing salinity conditions had significant negativelly effected on plant height, fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b content, leaf relative water content, wheares the values leaf relative membrane permeability (RMP) of soybean plants was increased because of cell membrane demaged by oxidative stress during seedling period. In the study, although potassium humate application on soybean grown under modareted level (3dSm-1 salt) salinity conditions did not create a statistically significant difference and importance, it is recommended to carry out studies on its availability, application amount and application period since it has a positive effect on some traits (plant height, leaf area, karatoneid ve RMP) under salt stress conditions. Thus, it is thought that foliar potassium humate application will be important in terms of a practical application for producers to cope with the negative effects of salt stress conditions.


Abbasi, M.K., Tahir, M.M., Azam, W., Abbas, Z., Rahim, N.,2012. Soybean yield and chemical composition in response to phosphorus-potassium nutrition in Kashmir. Agronomy Journal, 104: 1476–1484.

Abdelrasheed, K.G., Mazrou, Y., Omara, A.E., Osman, H.S., Nehela, Y., Hafez, E.M., Rady, A.M.S., El-Moneim, D.A., Alowaiesh, B.F., Gowayed, S.M., 2021. Soil amendment using biochar and application of k-humate enhance the growth, productivity, and nutritional value of Onion (Allium cepa L.) under deficit irrigation conditions. Plants, 10: 2598.

Adhikari, B., Dhungana, S. K., Kim, I. D., Shin, D. H., 2020. Effect of foliar application of potassium fertilizers on soybean plants under salinity. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 19(4): 261-269.

Alharbi, K., Rashwan, E., Hafez, E., Omara, A. E. D., Mohamed, H. H., Alshaal, T., 2022. Potassium humate and plant growth-promoting microbes jointly mitigate water deficit stress in soybean cultivated in salt-affected soil. Plants, 11(22): 3016.

Ali, Y., Aslam, A., Ashraf, M.Y., Tahir, G.R., 2004. Effect of salinity on chlorophyll concentration, leaf area, yield and yield components of rice genotypes grown under saline environment. Environmental Science Journals 1: 221-225

Aydin, A., Kurt, F., Hurkan, K., 2021. Key aromatic amino acid players in soybean (Glycine max) genome under drought and salt stresses. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 35: 102094.

Aytaç, Z., Gülbandılar, A., Kürkçüoğlu, M., 2022. Humic Acid Improves Plant Yield, Antimicrobial Activity and Essential Oil Composition of Oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. hirtum (Link.) Ietswaart). Agronomy, 12: 2086.

Beinsan, C., Camen, D., Sumalan, R., Babau, M., 2009. Study concerning salt stress effect on leaf area dynamics and chlorophyll content in four bean local landraces from Banat area. In 44th Croatian & 4th International Symposium on Agriculture, Opatija, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Bilashini, D.M., Thoithoi D.M., Jha, A.K., Anjoo, Y., Balusamy, A., Verma, V.K., Talang, H.D., Deshmukh, N.A., Rymbai, H., Assumi, S.R., 2018. Yield and Yield Attributes of Garden Pea (Pisum sativum var. hortense L.) as Influenced by Nutrient Management Practices under Agroclimatic Conditions of Meghalaya. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7: 3447–3454.

Canavar, O., Gotz, K.P., Ellmer, F., Chmielewski, F. M., Kaynak, M. A., 2014. Determination of the relationship between water use efficiency, carbon isotope discrimination and proline in sunflower genotypes under drought stress. Australian journal of crop science, 8(2): 232-242.

Chugh, V., Vijaya Krishna, K., Pandit, A., 2021. Cell membrane-coated mimics: a methodological approach for fabrication, characterization for therapeutic applications, and challenges for clinical translation. American Chemical Society Nano, 15(11): 17080-17123.

Diao, M., Ma, L., Wang, J., Cui, J., Fu, A., Liu, H. Y., 2014. Selenium promotes the growth and photosynthesis of tomato seedlings under salt stress by enhancing chloroplast antioxidant defense system. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 33: 671-682.

El-Bassiouny, H. M., Bekheta, M. A., 2005. Effect of salt stress on relative water content, lipid peroxidation, polyamines, amino acids and ethylene of two wheat cultivars. International Journal of Science and Research, 7(3): 363-368.

El-Hashash, E.F., Abou El-Enin, M.M., Abd El-Mageed, T.A., Attia, M.A.E.-H., El-Saadony, M.T., El-Tarabily, K.A., Shaaban, A., 2022. Bread Wheat Productivity in Response to Humic Acid Supply and Supplementary Irrigation Mode in Three Northwestern Coastal Sites of Egypt. Agronomy, 12: 1499.

Essa, T. A., 2002. Effect of salinity on growth and nutrient composition of three soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) cultivars. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 188(2): 86-93.

Fayez, K. A., Bazaid, S. A., 2014. Improving drought and salinity tolerance in barley by application of salicylic acid and potassium nitrate. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 13(1): 45-55.

Flowers, T.J., Torke, P.F., Yeo, A.R., 1977. The mechanism of salt tolerance in halophytes.Ann. Rev. Plant Physiology, 28:89-121.

Gomes, M. A. D. C., Suzuki, M. S., Cunha, M. D., Tullii, C. F., 2011. Effect of salt stress on nutrient concentration, photosynthetic pigments, proline and foliar morphology of Salvinia auriculata Aubl. Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia, 23: 164-176.

Gouiaa, S., Khoudi, H., Leidi, E. O., Pardo, J. M., Masmoudi, K., 2012. Expression of wheat Na+/H+ antiporter TNHXS1 and H+-pyrophosphatase TVP1 genes in tobacco from a bicistronic transcriptional unit improves salt tolerance. Plant Molecular Biology, 79: 137-155.

Hafez, E.M., Omara, A.E.D., Alhumaydhi, F.A., El-Esawi, M.A., 2021. Minimizing hazard impacts of soil salinity and water stress on wheat plants by soil application of vermicompost and biochar. Physiologia Plantarum, 172: 587–602.

Hailu, B., Mehari, H., 2021. Impacts of soil salinity/sodicity on soil-water relations and plant growth in dry land areas: A review. Journal of Natural Science, 12: 1-10.

Heidari, A., Bandehagh, A., Toorchi, M., 2014. Effects of NaCl stress on chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) lines. Yuzuncu Yıl University Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 24(2): 111-120.

Higbie, S.M., Wang, F., Stewart, J.M., Sterling, T.M., Lindemann, W.C., Hughs, E., Zhang, J. 2010. Physiological response to salt (NaCl) stress in selected cultivated tetraploid cottons. International Journal of Agronomy. 10:1155-1167

Hussein, M. M., Mehanna, H., Zaki, S., Hay, N. F. A., 2014. Influences of salt stress and foliar fertilizers on growth, chlorophyll and carotenoids of jojoba plants. Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research, 3: 221-226.

Hossain, M.I., Khatun, A., Talukder, M.S.A., Dewan, M.M.R., Uddin, M.S., 2010. Effect of drought o physiology and yield contributing characters of sunflower. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research, 35: 113-124.

Jiang, C., Zu, C., Lu, D., Zheng, Q., Shen, J., Wang, H., Li, D., 2017. Effect of exogenous selenium supply on photosynthesis, Na+ accumulation and antioxidative capacity of maize (Zea mays L.) under salinity. Scientific Reports, 7(1): 42039.

Kadam, A. S., Wadje, S. S., Patil, R., 2011. Role of potassium humate on growth and yield of soybean and black gram. International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Science, 1: 243-246.

Khan, M. A. H., Baset, Mia, M. A., Quddus, M. A., Sarker, K. K., Rahman, M., Skalicky, M., Hossain, A., 2022. Salinity-induced physiological changes in pea (Pisum sativum L.): Germination rate, biomass accumulation, relative water content, seedling vigor and salt tolerance index. Plants, 11(24): 3493.

Krishnamurathy, R., Anbazhagan, M., Bhagwat, K.B., 1987. Effect of sodium chloride toxicity on chlorophyll break down in rice. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science. 57: 567-570.

Kwak, Y. K., Vikström, E., Magnusson, K. E., Vécsey-Semjén, B., Colque-Navarro, P., Möllby, R., 2012. The Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin perturbs the barrier function in Caco-2 epithelial cell monolayers by altering junctional integrity. Infection and Immunity, 80(5): 1670-1680.

Kwiatowsky, J., 1998. Salinity classification, mapping and management in Alberta. Food and Rual Development and Agriculture and Agrifood. Canada.

Kura-Hotta, M., Satoh, K., Katoh, S., 1987. Relationship between photosynthesis and chlorophyll content during leaf senescence of rice seedlings. Plant Cell Physiology, 7: 1321-1329

Kurt, C. H., Tunçtürk, M., Tunçtürk, R., 2023. Tuzluluk stresi koşullarında yetiştirilen soya (Glycine max L.) bitkisinde bazı fizyolojik ve biyokimyasal değişimler üzerine salisilik asit uygulamalarının etkileri. Ege Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi, 60.1: 91-101.

Lutts S, Kinet, J.M, Bouharmont J. 1996. NaCl Induced senesence in leaves of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars differing in salinity resistance. Annals of Botany 78: 389-398.

Misra, A.N., Sahl, S.M., Misra, M., Singh, P., Meera, T., Das, N., Har, M., Sahu, P., 1997. Sodium chloride induced changes in leaf growth, and pigment and protein contents in two rice cultivars. Biology of Plant, 39:257-262.

Munns, R., 2002. Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell Environment, 25:239-250

Munns, R., Tester, M., 2008. Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Ann. Rev. Plant Biology, 59: 651–681.

Nelson, K.A., Motavalli, P.P., Stevens, W.E., Kendig, J.A., Dunn, D., Nathan, M., 2012. Foliar potassium fertilizer additives affect soybean response and weed control with glyphosate. International Journal of Agronomy, 461894.

Nusrat, N., Shahbaz, M., Perveen, S., 2014. Modulation in Growth, Photosynthetic Efficiency, Activity of Antioxidants and Mineral Ions by Foliar Application of Glycinebetaine on Pea (Pisum sativum L.) under Salt Stress Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 36: 2985–2998.

Okba, S.K., Mazrou, Y., Elmenofy, H.M., Ezzat, A., Salama, A. M., 2021. New Insights of Potassium Sources Impacts as Foliar Application on ‘Canino’ Apricot Fruit Yield, Fruit Anatomy, Quality and Storability. Plants, 10: 1163.

Osman, M. E., Mohsen, A. A., Elfeky, S. S., Mohamed, W., 2017. Response of salt-stressed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to potassium humate treatment and potassium silicate foliar application. Egyptian Journal of Botany, 57(7th International Conf.), 85-102.

Papp, J.C., Ball, M.C., Terry, N., 1983. A comparative of the effects of NaCl salinity on respiration, photosynthesis and leaf extention in Beta vulgaris L. (Sugar beet). Plant Cell Envir. 6:675-677.

Rozema, J., Flowers, T., 2008. Crops for a salinized world. Science, 322(5907): 1478-1480.

Sharma, J.R., 2006. Statistical & Biometrical Techniques in Plant Breeding; New Age International: New Delhi, India, 432p.

Sohan, D., Jasoni, R., Zajicek, J., 1999. Plant-water relation of NaCl and calcium treated sunflowers plants. Environmental Experimental Botany. 42:105-111.

Tatar, Ö., Brueck, H., Gevrek, M. N., Asch, F., 2010. Physiological responses of two Turkish rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties to salinity. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 34(6): 451-459.

Tu, J.C., 1981. Effect of salinity on Rhizobium-root-hair interaction, nodulation and growth of soybean. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 61(2): 231-239.

Turan, M., Ekinci, M., Kul, R., Kocaman, A., Argin, S., Zhirkova, A.M., Perminova, I.V., Yildirim, E., 2022. Foliar Applications of Humic Substances Together with Fe/Nano Fe to Increase the Iron Content and Growth Parameters of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Agronomy, 12: 2044.

Ullah, M.A., Aamir, S.S., Haider, H., Adil, B., Mahmood, I.A., Badar-uz-Zaman, H. S., 2018. Effect of salinity, humic acid, biozote and vermicompost on soil physicochemical properties and olive plants species. Journal of Agricultural Science and Practice, 3: 27-32.

Wang, D., Shannon, M.C., Grieve, C. M., 2001. Salinity reduces radiation absorption and use efficiency in soybean. Field Crops Research, 69: 267-277

Veldhuis, M. J., Kraay, G. W., Timmermans, K. R. 2001. Cell death in phytoplankton: correlation between changes in membrane permeability, photosynthetic activity, pigmentation and growth. European Journal of Phycology, 36(2): 167-177.

Yan, H. O. N. G., Shah, S. S., Zhao, W., Liu, F.U.L.A. I. 2020. Variations in water relations, stomatal characteristics, and plant growth between quinoa and pea under salt-stress conditions. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 52(1): 1-7.

Yasar, F., Ellialtioglu, S., Yildiz, K., 2008. Effect of salt stress on antioxidant defense systems, lipid peroxidation, and chlorophyll content in green bean. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 55: 782-786.

Zhao, G.Q., Ma, B.L., Ren, C.Z. 2007. Growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and ion content of naked oat in response to salinity. Crop Science, 47:123-131.

Zhu, J. K., 2003. Regulation of ion homeostasis under salt stress. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 6: 441–445.




How to Cite

CANAVAR, Öner, & ÖNCAN SÜMER, F. (2023). The Effect of Foliar Application of Potassıum Fertilizer at Seedling Stage of Soybean Plants Under Salinity. MAS Journal of Applied Sciences, 8(3), 606–618.